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Caída de frutos | ProduccionSur.com
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Caída de frutos

28/12/2012 

Antes de cosechar

Las altas temperaturas y el viento agravan el proceso natural de caída de frutos. Para minimizar y disminuir las pérdidas se recomienda el uso de hormonas.
por Soledad Urraza y Mariela Curetti
La caída de los frutos cercana a la cosecha es un proceso natural que se agrava a medida que avanza la madurez de la fruta y es favorecida por ciertas condiciones ambientales como las altas temperaturas y el viento. Sin embargo, debemos incidir para minimizarlo y disminuir así las pérdidas económicas que esto acarrea. Una alternativa recomendada es el uso de hormonas de síntesis.
 
Productos recomendados
 
Existen dos productos que se utilizan en la zona: ANA (Apponon, Nafusaku) y el AVG (ABG-3168, Retain), ambos son reguladores de crecimiento.
El ANA (ácido naftalen-acético), conocido por su efecto raleador cuando los frutos son pequeños, actúa reteniendo la fruta en la planta al aplicarlo antes de la cosecha. Sin embargo, no actúa sobre el proceso de maduración. La fruta continúa madurando en el árbol. Su efecto comienza a los 2-3 días de la aplicación y lo mantiene por 15 días. Luego de ello puede hacerse una segunda aplicación. La dosis recomendada es de 5-6 gramos de producto comercial al 20 % cada 100 litros de agua.
El AVG es un producto que debe ser aplicado por única vez, 30 días antes de la fecha probable de cosecha Tiene un efecto de retraso de la maduración de la fruta. La dosis recomendada es de 120 g p.a. por hectárea.
 
Consideraciones
 
Estos productos se aplican en pulverizaciones, por lo cual es necesario tener en cuenta que para evitar la deriva y el rápido secado, es preciso que no haya viento. A su vez, para favorecer su penetración es conveniente el uso de tensioactivos siliconados (tipo silwet a 100 ml/100L). 
La aplicación de productos químicos implica un costo de uso de maquinaria, de los productos usados y de la mano de obra que realiza la tarea. Por ello es necesario realizar la aplicación en el momento oportuno para que la tarea sea efectiva y lograr el efecto deseado.
 
(*) Ingenieras Agrónomas. INTA. Agencia de Extensión Rural Alto Valle Oeste, Cipolletti. Especial para FruticulturaSur.com
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